Quantum Pioneer Stephen Wiesner

The year 1969 was certainly a time
for landmark events in human history. Some are of course incredibly well known,
such as the first manned landing on the Moon by the crew of Apollo 11 in
July of that year. Another involved the New York Mets winning Major League
Baseball’s World Series just a few months later.

There were also several other major
events of a historic nature that happened in 1969 which did not receive
anywhere near the same amount of publicity. One reason for this is that two of
these revolutionary ideas involved the highly refined science of quantum
physics. Another reason was due to these ideas being far ahead of contemporary
understanding.

One concept involved the very creation
of the Universe itself with a hypothesis called Vacuum genesis. Physicist Edward
Tryon (1940 – 2019) apparently came up with the idea while attending a seminar on
quantum physics in 1969. As cosmologist Dennis Sciama (1926 – 1999) was giving
a lecture there, Tryon had a sudden inspiration and said out loud “Maybe
the Universe is a vacuum fluctuation!”

The seminar audience thought Tryon
had merely made an amusing quip, but in fact he was thinking of how virtual energetic
particles can emerge into reality from quantum vacuum fields, or literally
empty space, for short periods of time before returning to a state of
non-existence. While Tryon’s idea has yet to be either proven or disproven by
science, it does represent one scientifically plausible scenario to explain why
and how our Universe came into existence from apparent nothingness.

The other landmark happening in 1969 (and
thereabouts) involving quantum physics was even more historically obscure and
unappreciated at the time but has since grown into perhaps the founding moment
of what is now known as quantum cryptography.

A fellow named Stephen J. Wiesner was
attending graduate school at Columbia University and exchanging ideas with his
friend Charles Henry Bennett (born 1943) of Harvard University. Among Wiesner’s
thoughts were on the concepts of quantum money and quantum multiplexing.

An age-old problem is the need for
societies to protect their currency from counterfeiting and their critical knowledge
and information from falling into the wrong hands. In the past, information
encryption involved the generation of very large amounts of numbers, which had
to be mathematically taken apart and reassembled in the proper order to allow
items to be identified and data to be read. Understandably, this process was
both time and space consuming, even when standard computers were involved.

Wiesner came up with a way to
circumvent these large numbers with the idea of encoding paper money with light
traps. He envisioned just twenty such devices on each bill that would be able
to capture a single randomly polarized photon each, identifying the bank note
with a unique serial number. As only a suitably equipped bank would possess the
technology to read the exact sequence determined by quantum physics, a would-be
counterfeiter could never produce a bill that would match the exact numbers
required to pass as a real monetary note.

Here is a basic idea of what
Wiesner’s concept of quantum money would look like. The little squares with the
arrows represent the light traps that make counterfeiting impossible.

The quantum money concept led into
Wiesner’s other idea, quantum multiplexing. In its most basic form, one party
sends multiple messages to a receiver who is presumed to know exactly which
message to decode and read. Whichever one they chose will cause the other
messages to be destroyed without the chance of recovery. If an unwelcome party
tried to read the messages without the proper exact codes, this too would cause
the transmitting information to irreversibly destruct. This remarkable idea
would one day lead to the emergence of the field known as quantum information
science and the ability to send entangled transmissions across large distances.

Wiesner and his initial ideas
suffered from one major flaw: They emerged in an era where utilizing such
quantum abilities were beyond not only the technologies of the day but the
minds of most people, even the ones who had the potential to grasp such
concepts.

The graduate student wrote a paper on
his ideas which he titled “Conjugate Coding”. The response from his fellow
academics was less than enthusiastic.

“I didn’t get any support from my
thesis advisor – he showed no interest at all,” Wiesner would later report. “I
showed it to several other people, and they all pulled a strange face, and went
straight back to what they were already doing.”

It would be safe to say that Wiesner
was trying to explain the equivalent of a nuclear power plant to residents of
the early Nineteenth Century: They had the general idea of atoms and atomic
structure, but virtually no comprehension of their potential for human
civilization. To use a well-worn phrase, Wiesner was way ahead of his time.

Later on, Wiesner would submit
“Conjugate Coding” to the publication IEEE Transactions on Information
Theory
. They too rejected his paper as Wiesner had written it much like a
physics paper and the benefits (and specific languages) of cross-disciplinary
fields were often not as well appreciated then.

Eventually Wiesner’s landmark paper
would be published in 1983 in SIGACT News, 15 (1): 78-88. Thankfully by
then, the physicist’s past friendship and correspondence with Charles Bennett
had paid off: Not only did Bennett relay Wiesner’s pioneering accomplishments
to the world and history, but he was inspired to carry on his friend’s ideas to
further various fields in quantum physics and mechanics.

One tangible benefit from all this
became the implementation and eventually practical applications of Wiesner’s
original concepts. Bennet and Gilles Brassard (born 1955) would go on to
produce the first protocol for quantum cryptography in 1984, followed by the
first experimental prototype in 1991.

By the early Twenty-First Century –
April of 2004, to be exact – funds encrypted by quantum keys were successfully
transferred between two nearby banks in Austria for the first time. A mere two
months later, the first quantum cryptographically-secured computer network was
operating in Cambridge, Massachusetts, between BBN and Harvard.

Quantum communications and computing
have certainly come a long way since Stephen Wiesner first elaborated upon his
ideas half a century ago. Thankfully, not only were his ideas scientifically
and technologically plausible, they stand ready to promote widespread change in
the way our civilization functions. When this day comes, this quantum pioneer will
undoubtedly and deservedly join the ranks of the well-known scientists and
similar men and women who advanced humanity into the future.

Wiesner’s landmark paper, “Conjugate
Coding”, is available to read online for free here:

http://users.cms.caltech.edu/~vidick/teaching/120_qcrypto/wiesner.pdf

Quantum Light Introduction

We are at the threshold of a real revolution in computer technology, one that will literally change how our society currently functions and interacts with the machines and systems we operate now in ways we can only imagine.

This technology is quantum computing and its key aspects, namely security. This computing system is so named for it operates on the very foundations and principles of quantum physics. Utilizing the seemingly magical properties of the quantum state in our macroscopic world, quantum computing offers the ability to store data in quantities that may seem as unbelievable to us as a modern laptop holding terabytes of information would to someone at the start of the Computer Age in the mid-Twentieth Century.

Protecting the New Gold Standard: Information

In the often prescient 1992 film Sneakers, the character of Cosmo explains what has become the true ultimate commodity of the modern technological era:

“The world isn’t run by weapons anymore, or energy or money. It’s run by ones and zeroes, little bits of data. It’s all just electrons.

“There’s a war out there, old friend, a world war. And it’s not about who’s got the most bullets. It’s about who controls the information …what we see and hear, how we work, what we think. It’s all about the information.”

Our civilization runs on information of all sorts every second of every day. Most of this information is now stored, analyzed, filtered, and run through our elaborate systems of computers and the networks that deliver and collect them.

While much of the information our society needs to function is widely available, there is also a plethora of data that requires being protected for reasons ranging from personal privacy to national security. While current computers have a wide range of methods to secure the information placed on them, it is not always enough. Someone always seems ready and able to find a way to break through even the most sophisticated security cyphers and codes.

Quantum computers can change all this. Using the rules of quantum physics, more information could be stored on such a system than would ever be possible on a machine in the macrorealm. These same physics can also provide encryption protection that would make it virtually impossible to decode or otherwise break both stored data and its transmission from one computer system to another.

This medium is new and pioneering. There are many obstacles to overcome. Nevertheless, quantum computing and cryptography are real and offer possibilities that could transform our world and our species in ways we now only think of as science fiction.

Quantum Light is leading the way in this incredible tomorrow.

Learn how here.

Quantum Light Article by Lawrence Klaes

 

A New Age of Optical Cyber Security

Can you Imagine if we could use the Laws of Physics to create perfect cyber security? What if we told you a small start-up company based in the United Kingdom and Europe has developed such secrets? What if together we could protect our digital world and enable the next generation of cyber security?

Are you ready for perfect cyber-security?

Today, our world-wide-web or Internet cannot be effectively secured from hacking, while most embedded IoT devices remain unprotected and open to hacking in the Internet-of-Things. Therefore, we propose to deploy and scale our IoT secure end-to-end system platform. Quantum Light has created “Light Key” a pervasive 2nd factor of authentication service that exploits the natural properties of light and is to be delivered as an IBM Business Partner product.

The Founder of Quantum Light has worked on different kinds of wireless optical communications systems for the last 18 years, and has recently validated our technical theory and demonstrated our prototypes at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge University as part of the amazing Impulse Program for technology innovators. We are now able to use the Laws of Physics in order to create “perfect optical cyber security” in a revolutionary and disruptive “game-changing” way. This is a remarkable new invention.

Quantum Light is the best option for Internet security. Our first product and API application uses our technology to secure an entirely innovative and new kind of Financial trading platform that is virtually unhackable. After you visit our product link below, please read on to find out more about LightKey and how we are using it to secure the Internet with our LightKey technology.

Summary of Internet-of-Things Vulnerabilities

The security architecture of the Internet’s TCP/IP packet and DNS routing networks has largely been exceeded in terms of current capabilities to secure the Internet-of-Things. It may come as a shocking suprise to you, or you may be well aware – depending on the level of your technical expertise and cyber security experience. But look around, everything is vulnerable to hacking.

  1. Network traffic of encryption keys and sensitive plaintext credentials.
  2. IoT data firmware updates are not generally encrypted before upload.
  3. Firmware exposed in unencrypted network traffic transmissions.
  4. Identity of servers exposed by TCP/IP protocols for authentication.
  5. Misconfigured SSL/TLS by many network users leave open ports
  6. Credentials at risk by downloadable MCU/CPU firmware extraction.
  7. SQL injection, cross-site scripting, request forgery, TLS implicit trust.

The Internet-of-Things is highly vulnerable to hacking threats. This is due to the fact a number of structural vulnerabilities exist – some still “zero-day” and others were inadvertently incorporated into the architecture for example of x86 chipsets. Many computer processors can be accessed via MINIX-3 types of utilities in order to easily obtain plain-text user-credentials dumps, directly from most types of x86 chipsets and exposing many mission critical devices to hacking threats. Basically, the Internet is fundamentally hackable. The good news is that we can do something about it together.

Quantum Light research estimated figures

Billions Growth Millions
Internet Users Worldwide 3.773 10% 354
Social Media Users 2.789 21% 482
Unique Mobile Subscribers 4.917 5% 222
Social Media Mobile Users 2.549 30% 581

When it comes to “mission critical” assets (like cars) the risk posed by fundamentally insecure wireless communications is magnified and given the more realistic “threat model” of comprising user credentials on-line, instead of the very hard wireless brute-force hacking threat model being used by Automotive companies in their “penetration testing” and in order to falsely assure consumers.

The typical “connected car” even at level 1 of automation presents over 16 attack vectors and has in excess of 100 microprocessor ECU components available to hack. The most worrisome “threat-model” is that of compromising user-credentials on-line and this has been manifest by an increasing number of “connected car” robberies and car hijackings using user compromised-credentials from typical hacks of mobile or laptop devices. In addition, the automotive industry is ill prepared to respond to this threat, as the “controller area network” (CAN) of cars is wide-open by necessity since there are no standards among many participants in the OEM electronics make-up of modern cars.

Quantum Light Ltd – Cyber Security Solutions for IoT

LightKey (TM) is our Optical 2nd factor of authentication service for end-user devices delivered via an API (software cloud service) which utilizes the LED in most mobile and other types of user devices.

AEBIS” or “Autonomous Electronic Blockchain Information System” is an independent vehicular computer that is designed to address the architectural flaw of current automotive ECU electronics – which have NO protection, nor are they able to ever have one, for existing vehicular fleets. OEM and manufacturers may one day solve this problem by introducing new integrated systems from the factory. We are most interested in the existing vehicular fleet that is currently not compliant with existing and prospective EU and UK legislation. Our products are available as easy retro-fit installations for legal compliance and deliver the functionalities and software certifications required by current 2018 Electric and Automated Vehicle Act.

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Maxwell Centre’s Impulse Program

Impulse Program for Tech Innovators
Maxwell Centre – Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University

“Chance encounters make amazing ideas possible”

Quantum Light and Helios Energia are proud Alumns of the 2018 program. The Impulse Entrepreneurship Programme at the Maxwell Centre serves as a catalyst for entrepreneurship in individuals and organisations. Impulse is an exciting opportunity of collaborations for innovators and entrepreneurs from a variety of disciplines, industries and countries who are passionate in helping a new generation of science and tech entrepreneurs succeed.

The programme is targeted to tech innovators across different fields of Physical Sciences and Technology, including Life Sciences. Through Impulse, the participants will get the opportunity to develop commercialisation strategies for their novel ideas and receive additional follow-up mentoring and master classes. They receive expert advice and mentoring from successful entrepreneurs, innovators and investors, and benefit from networking with over 80 contributors from the Cambridge entrepreneurial community and Maxwell Centre’s industry partners. Develop high-potential business cases Provide expert-mentoring Relevance to individual projects Learn directly from 80+ entrepreneurs, innovators, investors and industry experts Intense but time-limited, steep learning-curve experience.

The programme is comprised of two intensive residential modules and individual assignments in-between over a period of three months. Both mentoring and regular clinics (one-to-one discussions with business professionals) happen over three months.

Maxwell Program Overview Video